Electronic circuits for beginners – How to design electronic circuits

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All people who have searched for this article are not expert in designing electronic circuits. Here I am going to give few steps to give you basic knowledge about designing electronic circuits. First of all you need to know about the components and the connections basics. 

Basic components in electronic circuits are resistors, capacitors, voltage sources, ICs and sensor components. The sensor components include LEDs, photo diode etc.

Now the next step is to connect them to make new circuit. For circuits you may consult the experienced designers or you may consider designing yourself by designing small circuits first.

Most of the components have positive terminal and negative terminals. Find out the positive and negative terminals. Connect the positive terminal with positive supply wire and negative terminal with negative supply terminal.

The connections should be tight to prevent any kind of sparking and unnecessary heat and power loss.

Resistors are basically used to resist the current flow. These are available in different values ranging from few ohms to several kilo and mega ohms. Depending upon the circuit design need take the appropriate resistor.

Voltage sources are the battery which provides power to the circuit. Without voltage source your circuit will not work. Positive and negative ends of voltage source should not be shorted directly. If shorted the excessive amount of current flow can occur damaging your circuit. Positive terminal of the voltage source must be connected to the positive terminal of components and negative terminal to the negative terminals.
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  Capacitors are used for filtering purpose. It easily passes ac current through it but blocks dc to pass through it. In case of dc circuit if capacitor is used it means it is filtering ac component out of the supply to provide pure DC.

ICs full form is Integrated circuits. The ICs are the components which has several pins that are needed to be connected in the circuit carefully. Each pin has specific connection requirement. For example two pins are present for connecting positive and negative supply to the IC. Rest of the pins may be used to provide input and output signal out of the IC. IC itself contains circuit fabricated inside it. These circuits are designed at microscopic level.

Sensor devices include LEDs and Photo diodes. LEDs full form is light emitting diode. When LED is connected in the circuit it glows when current passes through it. Anode and Cathode terminal of LED must be connected properly because if the LED is reverse biased it will not glow. Similarly photo diode is used to sense external light.
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